Chapter 14

Winery Cleaning and Sanitation

(book excerpts)

Winery cleaning and sanitation are crucial to producing quality wine. Although often used synonymously, there is a big difference between cleaning and sanitation. Cleaning involves the removal of both inorganic and organic substances from the surfaces of winery equipment. Cleaning needs to be done before any sanitation steps to ensure that sanitizers make contact with the surface being sanitized. Winery sanitation involves the reduction of the pathogen load on a surface to a level that minimizes microbial spoilage potential. Sanitation is not the same as sterilization. Sterilization be definition is the removal/destruction of ALL living microorganisms. Sterilization is usually reserved for the bottling. The wine industry is primarily focused on cleaning and sanitation protocols, as there are not many sterile practices utilized in winery operations. Properly conducted, cleaning and sanitizing programs limit the build-up of mineral and organic contaminants (e.g., proteins, tartrates, biofilms, etc.), which serve as reservoirs for microbial proliferation and re-infection. A lapse in cleaning and sanitation can have significant impact on the quality and marketability of the final product. All chemicals used in a cleaning and sanitation program must be approved including their intended-use concentration. Any deviation from prescribed and approved concentrations is potentially unlawful and may also be a safety concern. It is therefore very important to follow recommendations provided by manufactures.

Click on the following topics for more information on winery cleaning and sanitation.

Topics Within This Chapter:

  • Water Quality
  • Manual or Clean-in-Place Systems in the Winery
  • Manual Cleaning and Sanitizing in the Winery
  • Clean-In-Place Systems in the Winery
  • Anatomy of a CIP System
  • Centralized or Mobile CIP Systems
  • Spray Devices
  • CIP Single-Use or Recovery Systems
  • Winery Cleaning and Sanitizing Process
  • What Needs to be Cleaned and Sanitized
  • Five-Step Cleaning and Sanitation Process
  • Pre-Rinse
  • Cleaning Cycle
  • Post-Rinse
  • Sanitizing Cycle
  • Final Rinse
  • Winery Cleaning Detergents
  • Alkaline-Based Detergents
  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • Potassium Hydroxide
  • Sodium Carbonate
  • Sodium Percarbonate
  • Trisodium Phosphate
  • Detergent Compound Terminology
  • Acid-Based Detergents
  • Winery Sanitizing Agents
  • Hot Water and Steam
  • Quaternary Ammonium
  • Peroxyacetic Acid
  • Ozone
  • Chlorine Dioxide
  • Iodophors
  • Acidulated Sulfur Dioxide
  • Microbial Monitoring in the Winery
  • Microscopic Observation Wine Spoilage Organism
  • Viable Plating of Wine Microorganisms
  • Spread Plate Technique
  • Membrane Filtration Technique
  • ATP Bioluminescence Testing in the Winery
  • How to Test for ATP
  • ATP Test Results
  • Scope of the Bioluminescence Method
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing in the Winery
  • Winery Cleaning and Sanitation Manual