Wine Production



WHOLE CLUSTER. This can refer to whole-cluster pressing and/or whole-cluster fermentation, where pressing and/ or fermentation happen without the stems having been removed from the berries. Stem inclusion can add more tannins and structure to the finished wine, but can also impart additional flavors. If the clusters are picked early in the maturation process, the greener, more flexible stems might impart vegetal or herbal notes.

WILD YEASTS. Yeasts which can initiate a fermentation of grape juice, but are not tolerant enough to ethanol to complete the fermentation. They are usually associated with the grape berry.