Wine Production



LACCASE. Phenol-oxidizing enzymes not present unless produced in grapes by mold infection, but important in browning and related reactions of moldy grapes.

LACTIC ACID BACTERIA. Those bacteria capable of producing lactic acid (not present from grapes or yeasts) in wines, usually by malolactic fermentation. {See also Malolactic Fer mentation.)

LEES. Sediment, including dead yeast cells, which settles at the bottom of the vat or barrel following the end of the fermentation process. Gross lees are coarse sediments, but lighter, fine lees may settle after initial racking. The wine may be aged for an extended period on the fine lees, however, in what's called "sur lie" aging. Fine lees, the dead yeast cells leftover from fermentation, can enhance an aging wine with added richness, flavor and aroma complexity, and can also bind with excess tannins.

LIQUEUR D'EXPEDITION. Liquid containing wine and cane sugar, or rectified concentrated grape must, used to top up bottle-fermented sparkling wine after degorgement.

LIQUEUR DE TIRAGE. Mixture of sugar (or rectified concentrated grape must) and yeast added to base wine at the time of bottling to induce secondary fermentation in traditional method sparkling wine production.